### Differential Equations used in Siddhantas

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Motional strength is one the sixfold strengths, known as Cheshta Bala. This motional strength is computed by the formula

Motional Strength = 0.33 ( Sheegrocha or Perigee - geocentric longitude of the planet ). This motional strength is known as Cheshta Bala.

Differential Calculus is the science of rates of the change. If y is the longitude of the planet and t is time, then we have the differential equation ,dy/dt.

During direct motion, we find that dy/dt > 0 and during retrogression dy/dt < 0. During backward motion of the planet ( retrogression) y decreases with time and during direct motion y increases with time. When there are turning points known as Vikalas or stationary points, we have dy/dt = 0 ( where planets like Mars will appear to be stationary for an observer on Earth ).

The quantity in bracket is the Sheegra Anomaly, the Anomaly of Conjuction, the angular distance of the planet from the Sun. This Anomaly or Cheshta Bala is maximum at the center of the Retrograde Loop. Cheshta Kendra is defined as the Arc of Retrogression and is the same as Sheegra Kendra, Kendra being an angle in Sanskrit. During Opposition, when the planet is 180 degrees from the Sun, Cheshta Bala is maximum and during Conjunction, when the planet is 0 degrees from the Sun, it is minimum

The Motional Strength is given in units of 60s, Shashtiamsas.

Direct motion ( Anuvakra ) 30

Stationary point ( Vikala ) 15

Very slow motion ( Mandatara ) 7.5

Slow motion ( Manda ) 15

Average speed ( Sama ) 30

Fast motion ( Chara ) 30

Very fast motion ( Sheegra Chara ) 45

Max orbital speed ( Vakra ) 60

(Centre of retrograde)

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