### The Madhava cosine series

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Madhava's cosine series is stated in verses 2.442 and 2.443 in Yukti-dipika commentary (Tantrasamgraha-vyakhya) by Sankara Variar. A translation of the verses follows.

Multiply the square of the arc by the unit (i.e. the radius) and take the result of repeating that (any number of times). Divide (each of the above numerators) by the square of the successive even numbers decreased by that number and multiplied by the square of the radius. But the first term is (now)(the one which is) divided by twice the radius. Place the successive results so obtained one below the other and subtract each from the one above. These together give the śara as collected together in the verse beginning with stena, stri, etc.

Let r denote the radius of the circle and s the arc-length.

The following numerators are formed first:

s.s^2,

s.s^2.s^2

s.s^2.s^2.s^2

These are then divided by quantities specified in the verse.

1)s.s^2/(2^2-2)r^2,

2)s. s^2/(2^2-2)r^2. s^2/4^2-4)r^2

3)s.s^2/(2^2-2)r^2.s^2/(4^2-4)r^2. s^2/(6^2-6)r^2

As per verse,

sara or versine = r.(1-2-3)

Let x be the angle subtended by the arc s at the center of the Circle. Then s = rx and sara or versine = r(1-cosx)

Simplifying we get the current notation

1-cosx = x^2/2! -x^4/4!+ x^6/6!......

which gives the infinite power series of the cosine function.

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