### Mathematics and Philosophy

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In India, mathematics is related to Philosophy. We can find mathematical

concepts like Zero ( Shoonyavada ), One ( Advaitavada ) and Infinity

(Poornavada ) in Philosophia Indica.

The Sine Tables of Aryabhata and Madhava, which gives correct sine values or values of

24 R Sines, at intervals of 3 degrees 45 minutes and the trignometric tables of

Brahmagupta, which gives correct sine and tan values for every 5 degrees influenced

Christopher Clavius, who headed the Gregorian Calender Reforms of 1582. These

correct trignometric tables solved the problem of the three Ls, ( Longitude, Latitude and

Loxodromes ) for the Europeans, who were looking for solutions to their navigational

problem ! It is said that Matteo Ricci was sent to India for this purpose and the

Europeans triumphed with Indian knowledge !

The Western mathematicians have indeed lauded Indian Maths & Astronomy. Here are

some quotations from maths geniuses about the long forgotten Indian Maths !

In his famous dissertation titled "Remarks on the astronomy of Indians" in 1790,

the famous Scottish mathematician, John Playfair said

"The Constructions and these tables imply a great knowledge of

geometry,arithmetic and even of the theoretical part of astronomy.But what,

without doubt is to be accounted,the greatest refinement in this system, is

the hypothesis employed in calculating the equation of the centre for the

Sun,Moon and the planets that of a circular orbit having a double

eccentricity or having its centre in the middle between the earth and the

point about which the angular motion is uniform.If to this we add the great

extent of the geometrical knowledge required to combine this and the other

principles of their astronomy together and to deduce from them the just

conclusion;the possession of a calculus equivalent to trigonometry and

lastly their approximation to the quadrature of the circle, we shall be

astonished at the magnitude of that body of science which must have

enlightened the inhabitants of India in some remote age and which whatever

it may have communicated to the Western nations appears to have received

another from them...."

Albert Einstein commented "We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count,

without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made."

The great Laplace, who wrote the glorious Mechanique Celeste, remarked

"The ingenious method of expressing every possible number

using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute

value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its

significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its

simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic

foremost amongst useful inventions. The importance of this invention is more

readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest

men of antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius."

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